Tuesday, February 25, 2020
The Childhood Obesity - Essay Example Apparently, childhood obesity is not the only condition prevalent in children. Other diseases abound and show high linkage to dietary and lifestyle habits, for instance, juvenile diabetes and more specifically type 2 diabetes. Experts today boldly say that nutrition has a significant impact on prevention and treatment of diabetes. Managing diabetes depends on how one controls blood sugar levels. Firstly, it is important to incorporate high fiber carbohydrates that do not spike sugar levels in the children. This means whole grain cereals, pasta, and bread and so on. Also, parents must ensure that carbohydrates are served in smaller proportions. This ensures that the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s insulin-producing mechanism is not stressed to failure. A further choice of good fats is paramount in preventing juvenile diabetes. Recommended fats include fish oils, vegetable oils and such like. Fruits and vegetables should dominate childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s meals as they have vitamins and minerals that aid in the optimum functioning of body organs such as the hypothalamus, liver, and pancreases that are responsible for the production of insulin. Foods rich in vitamin C, E, B and K found in dark green vegetables and red-orange fruits. The initial signs of diabetes include fatigue, dizziness and fainting, thirst, frequent urination, involuntary weight loss, vaginal yeast in ladies, blurry eyesight and bad breath and so on. Treatment of diabetes is a lifelong procedure that entails constant monitoring of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s levels and of course what one eats.... Additionally, parents and teachers at school are advised to encourage physical activity among their children so that they burn excess fat that causes obesity. Physical education is compulsory in schools and this has helped to prevent obesity. In instances where obesity is caused by psychological factors such as boredom, distress etc therapy has worked to alleviate turmoil and help the children find healthier ways which they can channel their inner feelings and find relief. It cases where obesity is genetic, doctors have come up with surgical procedures and medication that can help patients achieve healthy weight say the gastric bypass. (Koplan, Liverman, & Kraak, 66-78). Apparently, childhood obesity is not the only condition prevalent in children. Other diseases abound and show high linkage to dietary and lifestyle habits, for instance, juvenile diabetes and more specifically type 2 diabetes. Experts today boldly say that nutrition has a significant impact in prevention and treatment of diabetes. Managing diabetes depends on how one controls blood sugar levels. In that case dietary habits have to change. Firstly, it is important to incorporate high fiber carbohydrates that do not spike sugar levels in the children. This means whole grain cereals, pasta, and bread and so on. Also parents must ensure that carbohydrates are served in smaller proportions. This ensures that the body's insulin producing mechanism is not stressed to failure. Further choice of good fats is paramount in preventing juvenile diabetes. Recommended fats include fish oils, vegetable oils and such like. (http://ndep.nih.gov/). Fruits and vegetables should dominate children's meals as they have vitamins and minerals that aid in optimum functioning
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Thanks my old friend - Essay Example But I later learnt that patience is one of the best things required in attaining great things in life especially friendship. It was not until I had a chance to perform to my new friends in high school that I realized that I had a wonderful lesson. My high school friends were very supportive when they realized my great talent in playing piano. They applauded my great coordination skills that i meticulously used any time I played the piano. They said that I had a great skill that could take me to great places especially my outstanding ability of matching up my fingers, brain and the music. Certainly all these were due to my grand relationship with the piano. I believe piano contributed to my extraordinary performance in academic work. The piano training was the hardest lesson I ever had thus making other academic lessons easy to learn to comprehend. Music lessons have contributed to my larger vocabulary command because of the languages that most artists use in their performance. My abi lity to remember things has always increased perhaps because of the many songs I memorize. Additionally, piano lessons have made me gain wonderful discipline in the way i deal with any issue in life. Because of the challenging piano lessons I underwent, I have attained great discipline skills and patience which I have constantly applied in my academics as well as tackling daily life issues. I have been able to clearly listen to different kinds of sounds because of the constant use of different tones in music and I believe this has led to improvement of my hearing skills. I have great opportunities of performing in various functions such as birthday parties, high school and even... Piano lessons have made me gain wonderful discipline in the way I deal with any issue in life. Because of the challenging piano lessons I underwent, I have attained great discipline skills and patience which I have constantly applied in my academics as well as tackling daily life issues. I have been able to clearly listen to different kinds of sounds because of the constant use of different tones in music and I believe this has led to the improvement of my hearing skills. I have great opportunities of performing in various functions such as birthday parties, high school and even in the church. This has actually elevated my social status and made me feel great. Indeed my piano has introduced me to many things such as having new friends. I have been able to travel to many places in the name of performance and it has really been encouraging. I have enjoyed my relationship with the computer. It has been splendid and special. The piano and music have been there for me anytime I needed the m and our affiliation will certainly go far. Since nature gives us the chance to choose our friends, I think I made the best choice because I have never regretted. The piano has never stopped revealing to me some secrets of music anytime I perform and it has always remained loyal to me even when I almost lose hope in life. The piano has wonderfully cheered me up especially when I am upset thus making me feel special and improving my life. It has genuinely made me feel happy by supporting and entertaining me every time my spirit is down.
Thursday, January 30, 2020
How could the Holocaust have beet prevented Essay You have probably heard about a period of time, not so long ago, known as The Holocaust. A holocaust, according to Websters dictionary, is a complete destruction by fire (Stadtler, 1). In Europe, during this period, there was a complete destruction by fire of Jewish homes, Jewish businesses, Jewish neighborhoods, and Jewish people. This destruction was carried out under the direction of Adolf Hitler, during the years 1939-1945, but it actually began earlier, in 1933, when Hitler came to power in Germany. In my opinion, the Holocaust, which was caused by ignorance, could very well have been prevented. There were many powerful nations, such as the United Stated, the USSR, and Britain, whose leaders and militaries could have stepped in and helped the Jewish people who were facing extremely brutal persecution. Throughout most of the war, the American government clung to the delusion that the Nazis were persecuting the Jews because of their political or religious beliefs. The U.S. closed its gates to emigration from Europe in 1940-1941, when Jews were still allowed to emigrate. Anti-Semitism in America actually increased during the war and started to decline only at the end of it (Bauer, 297). A Soviet attitude toward the murder of the Jews simply did not exist. While fighting a desperate battle for its own survival, Britain saved the Jews of Palestine, North Africa, and much of the British Empire from the fate of European Jewry. The British fought only for themselves, but the defense of their own interests coincided with the defense of civilized humanity, including the Jews (Bauer, 296). The May 1939 White Paper on immigration to Palestine stated that immigration to Palestine would end after 75,000 had been admitted between 1939 and 1944. When war broke out, the British decreed that no enemy nationals could enter Palestine, which in effect, closed the doors to those who needing rescue most, specifically the European Jews trying to escape the Nazis. At first, the thought of such destruction in Europe was incomprehensible to other Nations. They heard of what was occurring, but did not believe it, and therefore did nothing. The suffering of hundreds of thousands, soon of millions, was evident for consciences to be aroused, for steps to be taken.Ã Nothing was done (Bauer, 297). I feel the ignorance of these Nations was the cause of the loss of 6 million lives. Had these Nations not turned their heads away and ignored what was happening, they could have saved many lives and prevented the Holocaust. By allowing emigration from Europe into their countries, by trying to negotiate with Hitler, or if worse came to worse, assassinating Hitler, things might have been different. By not recognizing the events leading to the Holocaust and of the Holocaust, they also caused the Holocaust along with Adolf Hitler. The Holocaust could only have been prevented by the World Powers, but they failed to do so because they were so ignorant. During the 19th century, European Jewry was being emancipated, and in most European countries, Jews were achieving some equality of status with non-Jews. Nonetheless, at times, Jews were vilified and harassed by anti-Semitic groups. Indeed, some anti-Semites believed that Jewry was an alien race not assimilable into a European culture, but they did not formulate any coherent anti-Semitic campaign until Hitler came to power. Germany was defeated in World War I after a four year struggle that left its people exhausted and divided. The harsh peace terms of the Versailles Treaty placed a heavy economic burden on them. Before the war Germany had thought of itself as Europes greatest nation. Now it was confused, bitter, and economically crippled, its wealth drained to pay the vast sums demanded by the Versailles Peace Treaty. Rising inflation left many Germans poor and others jobless. Political differences exploded in assassinations and street fighting. The new democratic government of Germany, the Weimar Republic, was unable to prevent disorder and caused people to lose faith in democracy. With Germans of all outlooks desperately seeking solutions for the nations problems, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party began their climb to power. Hitler was gifted with effective political talents. He offered an explanation for Germanys defeat, and a vision of Germanys future destiny, that played upon the fears, prejudices, and hopes of many Germans. He promised to rebuildÃ Germanys power and restore its prosperity (Isaacman, 16). This won the support of many Germans. Hitler was such an effective speaker that anything he said was believed even if it was not true. Hitler believed that the German people were part of an Aryan race, a superior group that should be kept pure to fulfill their mission of ruling the world. He felt that the Jewish people were sub-human, when in actuality they were virtually the same as his Aryan race. Not only did Hitler have a personal hatred toward the Jewish people, but he also blamed them for stabbing Germany in the back after Germanys defeat in World War I. Hitler used them as scapegoats because they were a minority and were easy to put the blame on. Historians agree that the Holocaust resulted from a confluence of various factors in a complex historical situation. That anti-Semitism festered throughout the centuries in European culture is centrally important; the Jews were (and are) a minority civilization in a majority environment. In periods of crisis, instead of searching for the solution of such crisis within the majority culture, the majority will tend to project blame for the crisis on a minority which is both familiar and weak. As the originators and bearers of an important part of civilization, the Jews are a father civilization against which pent up aggressions are easily unleashed (Bauer, 330). Anti-Semitism had always played a role in Nazi propaganda, for Hitler blamed most of Germanys problems on the Jews. Anti-Jewish laws of every kind were passed. Jews could no longer be judges, lawyers, teachers, government officials, army officers. Jewish doctors could not treat non-Jewish patients, Jews could not employ non-Jews, and Jews and non-Jews could not have social relationships. Jewish property was taken by the government, Jewish businesses were closed down, Jewish children could not attend public schools. All the media were utilized to spread anti-Jewish messages. On the street, Jews were mocked, tormented, and even beaten for no other reason but being Jewish. Jewish people were forced to wear Star of David armbands and were often attacked by storm troopers. On November 9-10, 1938, known as Kristallnacht (Night of the Broken Glass), hundreds of synagogues throughout Germany were burned by Nazi mobs, windows of Jewish shops were smashed, and thousands of Jews were arrested. Kristallnacht was a signal to Jews in Germany and Austria to leave as soon as possible. SeveralÃ hundred thousand people were able to find refuge in other countries, but a similar number, including many who were old or poor, stayed to face an uncertain fate (Stadtler, 12). The countries of Europe and the United States too, only admitted a small number of Jews. Had these countries made an exception for these people who were being treated poorly in their home countries there would have been a smaller amount of lives lost in the years to come. Throughout the 1930s, conditions for the Jews in Germany worsened. Some people in the United States refused to buy German products in an effort to put pressure on Hitler, but it did not help. This was not enough, the United States was a strong world power and could have done more to aid the Jewish people of Germany. What could a small amount of people not buying German products do? Absolutely nothing because Germany was much stronger than these few people; the aid of an entire nation was needed, not the aid of a few people. Since no one was stopping Hitler, he proceeded to enlarge Germanys territory. Threatening to use force if he did not get his way, he gained control of Austria in 1938 and of Czechoslovakia in 1939. Later in 1939, when Hitler invaded Poland, World War II broke out. During the early years of the war, Hitlers armies conquered most of Europe. Millions of Jews were now under German rule, and Hitler felt he was at last in a position to solve the Jewish Question. As Hitler saw it, the Jewish Question was simply the fact that the Jews existed. Therefore, the final solution emerged as a way to destroy them. Throughout Europe, in all the countries under their control- Poland, Western Russia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Lithuania, Latvia, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Greece, Italy, France, Holland, Denmark, Norway- the Jews were rounded up and confined in concentration camps or ghettos. Stripped of their property, brutalized, terrified, and disoriented, they were forced to work as slave laborers in abominable conditions. Many died of starvation and disease. Others were shot or beaten to death. Before long, rumors of this brutality reached capitals of the world, but nothing was done. As the war against the Jews progressed, however, the Nazis turned to large scale centralized killing operations. Jews from all over Europe were loaded into trains and shipped to death camps, among them, Auschwitz, Treblinka, Sobibor. LOCATION OF GERMAN CONCENTRATION CAMPS In the death camps, human life was destroyed quickly and efficiently (Isaacman, 19). Under the whips of cruel SS guards, the Jewish victims were herded off the trains and into gas chambers, where they were exterminated by a poisonous gas. Millions of non-Jews were also systematically killed- political opponents, Slavic peoples, and other minorities. In the case of the Jews, the Nazis were determined to annihilate an entire people. Some Jews fought back at every possible opportunity. Some Christians, too, tried to help. Taking great personal risks, they hid Jewish friends in their homes or cellars. Many of these people were caught and killed by the Nazis. People willing to take such risks were few and far between in Europe. Had other nations of the world been as righteous and as brave as these people, and combined their efforts, this attempted annihilation of the Jewish people could have been prevented. To some Nazis the final solution was more important than anything else. Though Germany was hemmed in by enemies and fighting for its life, they diverted valuable resources to the extermination machine (Isaacman, 20). Trains that could have carried ammunition to the front were used to transport Jews to death camps. Soldiers who could have been defending their country were instead sent to round up and guard Jewish civilians. After several years of war, Hitler knew he could not defeat America and the other Allies, but he was determined to win at least one victory by wiping out the Jews (Isaacman, 20). The United States and other world powers were too focused on the war to maintain their pride. While in Germany Hitler was trying to wipe an entire people off the face of the Earth. If these other nations of the world were not so ignorant, the lives of six million peopleÃ could have been saved. Hitler and his Nazi Party treated the Jewish people so inhumanely. He and his party felt that the Jews were biologically different, when in fact they were and are not. Every human being is equal and should be treated equally. No one is superior to anyone else, even though some may have an egocentric attitude. In 1945, Hitler committed suicide. Rather than correcting his errors, Hitler took the easy way out by committing suicide. The ultraorthodox Jewish theology justifies the Holocaust as an act of God, a punishment for sins committed by the Jewish people against their God. Others feel that the Holocaust was a result of mans betrayal to God. I feel that the Holocaust is not at all justified. During the Holocaust, six million Jewish people died, that is more than one-third (about 34 percent) of the Jewish population. From the liberated Nazi camps, weeping skeletons of men and women emerged. Among them were 200,000 Jews. These have to be added to the 210,000 that survived in France, about 37,000 in Belgium, 20,000 in the Netherlands, about 1,900,000 in the Polish-Soviet area, 350,000 in Rumania, 130,000 in Hungary, and smaller numbers elsewhere. Including Soviet Jewry, part of whom were never under Nazi rule, about 3 million Jews were left in Europe out of the original 9 million Jews before the war (Bauer, 334). As I stated before, there is only one thing and one thing only that caused this horrid event called the Holocaust, ignorance. Not just ignorance of the United States and the other world powers, but the ignorance of Hitler and his Nazi Party as well. Had the U.S. and other nations offered aid to the Jewish refugees, and opened their doors to these refugees, they would have saved many lives. Instead, they were just as guilty as the Nazis by helping in the destruction of an entire race. WORKS CITED PAGE Bauer, Yehuda. A History of the Holocaust. New York: Franklin Watts, 1983. Chartock, Roselle, Jack Spencer. The Holocaust Years: Society on Trial. New York: Bantam Books, 1978. Des Pres, Terrence. The Survivor: An Anatomy of Life in the Death Camps. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. Holocaust. Microsoft Encarta (CD ROM). 1993. Stadtler, Bea. The Holocaust: A History of Courage and Resistance. New York: Behrman House, Inc., 1973. Isaacman, Clara. Pathways Through the Holocaust. New York: Ktav Publishing House, Inc., 1988.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The Goals of the Declaration of Independence The American Revolution was not only a battle between the British and the colonists; it was a historical movement that brought about new ways of thinking. The ideas of liberty and equality began to be seen as essential to the growth of the new nation. The separation of the American colonies from the British Empire occurred for a number of reasons. These reasons are illustrated in the Declaration of Independence. Although Thomas Jefferson wrote the document, it expressed the desire of the heart of each colonist to be free of British rule. British rule over the colonies became unbearable in the early months of 1776, making it clear to the colonists that it was time to either give in to British power or declare their independence. This idea of independence divided the colonies, but it was not long before a revolutionary committee met in Philadelphia and drew up the document that would change American history. The Declaration of Independence was written to separate the American colonies from Britain, but there were many underlying goals. It was written to state the grievances that the colonists held against the British, particularly the king. The colonists wanted a better economy, a new republican government, but perhaps most of all, they simply wanted their misery to end. This is what they set out to explain in the document. John Adams described it as Ã¢â¬Å"a Declaration setting forth the causes which have impelled us to this mighty revolution, and the reasons which will justify it in the sight of God and manÃ¢â¬ (Friedenwald 182). The forceful wording used in the introduction of the document was used for a reason. Jefferson writes, Ã¢â¬Å"When in the course of h... ... clear that government is subject to the people that it governs. The British realized that they could not write a document that would meet the demands of the colonists (Thomas 334). It was time for the colonists to write their own document. This document, the Declaration of Independence, was not only a stand against Britain; it was a stand for freedom. Works Cited Friedenwald, Herbert. The Declaration of Independence: An Interpretation and an Analysis. New York: Da Capo Press, 1974. Pleasants, Samuel A., III. The Declaration of Independence. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Books, 1996. Thomas, Peter D. G. Tea Party of Independence: The Third Phase of the American Revolution 1773-1776. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991. Wills, Garry. Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Co., 1978.
Monday, January 13, 2020
GAC013: Science II: Scientific Principles Assessment 1: Scientific Investigation & Report Topic 1: Do Males and Females Have Different Abilities When Estimating Size? Student Name: Tracy Cheng Student ID: SHSA19818 Class:5 Teacher: Shawn Due Date: 10. 29. 2012 Content AbstractÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦2 IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 2 MethodologyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 2 ResultsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 3 DiscussionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦5 ConclusionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ ReferencesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦7 Abstract This report looks to explore the topic of doing males and females have different abilities when estimating size. The point that malesÃ¢â¬â¢ abilities to estimate size are more accurate than females is hypothesized. To prove this hypothesis, some importa nt information from the internet and a series of related research has been investigated. After collecting the data in my study, the results of this analysis indicate that males have the more accurate abilities in size estimating than females.Introduction In the society, male and female have much diversity, which is called Ã¢â¬ËSexual DimorphismÃ¢â¬â¢ in sociology and biology. Such differences are specifically expressed in many different areas in the life, such as morphology, ornamentation, and behavior. The purpose of this report is that analyzing some data to show the different abilities to estimate size for males and females, and trying to find what makes this happened. Now, I would like to hypothesis the malesÃ¢â¬â¢ abilities to estimate size better than femalesÃ¢â¬â¢. MethodologyFirstly, some information on the internet about males and females which kinds of people can reckon size accurately will be found. According to the information, ten males and ten females will be c hose to make them estimate an itemÃ¢â¬â¢s (pens, notebooks or shoes) size. For different items, the two gender people may show different abilities in size estimating. At the end of this research, data should be collected and analyzed by charts or other ways to compare the accuracies in size estimating for males and females. ResultsThe estimated length of a pen by given ten males and ten females are shown in Figure 1. The actual length of this pen is 14. 5cm, which is shown in Figure 1 (a). According to Figure 1 (b), femalesÃ¢â¬â¢ results include some more precise numbers, such as 13. 5cm and 14. 8cm. Furthermore, the mean value of the estimated length for males is 13. 2cm, and for females is 13. 82cm, which can be seen clearly that the average estimating of females is more close to the actual length than males. Figure 1 Ã¢â¬â (a) the estimated length of a pen by ten males; (b) the estimated length of a pen by ten females.Table 1 shows the estimated size of a pair of shoes by given ten males and ten females. The size of the shoes is European standard in this research, and actual size is 41. The mean value of the estimated size for males is 41. 7, and for females is 40. 9, and females have more accurate estimating. | MalesÃ¢â¬â¢ estimating| FemalesÃ¢â¬â¢ estimating| 1| 44| 41| 2| 42| 40| 3| 42| 43| 4| 44| 40| 5| 43| 42| 6| 42| 38| 7| 40| 40| | 41| 40| 9| 39| 42| 10| 40| 43| Mean (rule out maximum & minimum value)| 41. 7| 40. 9| Actual| 41| 41| Table 1 Ã¢â¬â estimated size of a pair of shoes by ten males and ten females. Figure 2 reveals the area estimating for a notebook by twenty people from two genders. The actual size of the chosen notebook is 446. 25 cm2. Though calculations, the average estimated size is 438 cm2 and 359. 25 cm2 for males and females, respectively.Moreover, a same case which be found in the first research (pen length estimating) also came out. FemalesÃ¢â¬â¢ estimating includes more precise numbers like 454. 6, and males more likely to estimate cursory numbers, such as 400, 300 and 600. Figure 2 Ã¢â¬â (a) the estimated size of a notebook by ten males; (b) the estimated size of a notebook by ten females. Discussion From the first research, it can be found that female is more careful and accurate (Figure 1), because females more likely to give a more specific value and shows a more exquisite heart.That can also be showed in daily life, girls always be said that do things much more careful than boys in most cases (Women and Men in the Classroom 1985, p. Online). For instance, when a teacher has some works for girls, in the most time the girls can finish these works quickly and better. However, in the third research, these results show that males have better estimated size than females. The researchers found that when people ask males to estimate size, the majority of them always use their hands to measure the length and ponder over for a relatively long time.But in the same situation, females are more li kely to pay attention on the notebookÃ¢â¬â¢s color, shape and other things rather than the size, and their reason is that they prefer to care about how lovely the notebook is. According all of these researches in the previous, females are better to estimate something which has exact norms, like shoes and diamond, and males are good at estimating on the things which are very large and dimensional, such as the height of a building and the length of a bridge.Although female is more careful, their ability in size estimating is not necessarily as good as males. Males are more logical and rational, and have better space imagination than females. Another research from the internet proves that metastudies show a male advantage in mental rotation and assessing horizontality and verticalityÃ¢â¬ (Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology. 2010. ) which is why male estimated more accurate than female. Conclusion Depending on a series of researches, people have different abilities to estima te size.Males are more accurate in estimating size than females since males are relatively more rational and logical. The reason may be related to the process in humanÃ¢â¬â¢s evolutions in the history. More specifically, males always make a more leading role in the society for a quite long time after the end of matriarchal clan commune period. For example, many important jobs such as architects and engineers even most government officials are preferred for males. To sum up, I prefer to think that the ability of males in estimating size is better than females.References Catherine G. Krupnick (1985), Women and Men in the Classroom [online]. Available at: http://isites. harvard. edu/fs/html/icb. topic58474/krupnick. html. [Accessed 26 Oct 2012] Chrisler, Joan C & Donald R. McCreary (2010), Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology. Springer. [online]. Available at: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Male_female_differences [Accessed 26 Oct 2012] Male-Female Brain Differences [online]. Av ailable at: http://www. doctorhugo. org/brain4. html [Accessed 26 October 2012]
Sunday, January 5, 2020
It is difficult for many Americans today to imagine taking everything they own and moving to a new country because of religious and political freedoms. With these freedoms taken so much for granted, we rarely think of the steps taken by our ancestors to gain that liberty. When looking at attempts in history to gain freedom, it is usual to look to the founding fathers of America and their sacrifices. However, other groups of people have strived for the same thing, one such group being the people of the divided German states shortly after the Seven YearÃ¢â¬â¢s War. Through several generations of Germans, these people moved across country, across continent, and eventually even across the ocean to America in order to gain that much-desired freedom. In about 1763, the Germans were experiencing many problems. With the seven years war just behind them, much of the land had been destroyed. Crops were trampled, and properties were decimated, making the living conditions in Germany very diff icult. On top of that, the war had left the political system in a state of chaos. At that time, Germany was not together as a nation but was rather divided into forty-two different states. Unified Germany as we know it today did not come about until much later, in about 1872. During this time minority religions struggled in the German states. Evangelical Christians such as Baptists were not looked well upon, as well as Mennonites who were pacifists and did not believe in serving in the military.Show MoreRelatedComparing The Culture of the Mongols versus the Pakistanis Essay1876 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagespsychotropic herbs and hypnotic drumming in order for him to travel to the spirit world. Once there, he is able to retrieve the help and spiritual guidance that the tribal society needs. Shamanism seems to have originated from ancestor worship. Images of the ancestors, called ongghot, were kept in the familys tents, and were thought to provide protection if satisfied. The shaman had an elevated position in the society, wore white and rode a white horse, and carried as insignia as staff and a
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Sample details Pages: 27 Words: 8088 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Introduction The increasingly mediatised culture we live in today has lead us to be dominated by and dependent upon the production and consumption of images. Notions of objectivity and empiricism in the photographic have long since disappeared, but we still locate our sense of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"the realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ in images. This dissertation will use many theories and ideas that discuss the role of photography, postmodernism and Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"the realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ within todayÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s culture. It will start with a discussion of the reasoning for the initial shift back towards the real. This shift mainly stemmed from postmodernism and the media. Postmodernism dealt with the idea of never ending reference and the fear about postmodern culture was that this never ending reference meant that all grip on reality had disappeared. There was a wish to return to something more stable and basic: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"the realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢? Due to advances in technology and developments in photography, the new fast changing everyday image led to our relationships and emotions becoming mediatised. We re-live events and experiences through images, which leads to a loss of the real. We remember the image rather than the event. Photographers started to try and return to the purely descriptive photography from the times before the mass referencing of postmodernism. This dissertation will look at how some of these photographers attempted to represent the real and also at how a few decided to play around with the representation of the real. Ansel Adams, for example, believed in simply trying to create a true representation of the landscape he was photographing. He attempted to show scenery at its most natural and realistic, with no visual manipulation or artifice. Andreas Gursky on the other hand began with this view but soon started changing this representation with digital editing so that it was no longer a true representation. Some photographers began attempting to cre ate purely descriptive photography but could not escape referencing earlier work. Justin PartykaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work The East Anglians, for example cannot be described as anything else but descriptive photography. However, his reference to Robert FrankÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s The Americans in his title, had led him to fall into the postmodernism trap. Can you provide an account without analysis when it comes to photography? DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Real Photography" essay for you Create order This leads onto the main question posed in this dissertation: can we ever (re)find the real? Some would say that even photos that appear to be descriptive cannot escape being subjected to analysis and placed within a context of viewing. Due to postmodernism, we are constantly searching for meaning and analysis in images. Maybe they can never be void of reference and construction? Maybe images can never provide the clear, stable version of reality that we want from them? This constant analysis of images has exhausted our trust and interest in the photograph; there was a need to create images different from the ones we see every day in the media in order to re-find our trust in the image as truth and as art. Older, slower technologies began to re-emerge. The single image produced from these methods of working could bring back the processes of our memory that have been complicated due to the sheer amount of information we get from other technologies. There are a number of strands of pho tography that are concerned with the notion of re-finding the real. What do these methods of photographing have in common? Do any of these strands achieve the stable and basic feeling of certainty that the real exists? Andy GrundbergÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s phrase Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"the crisis of the realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ is apt in explaining the context of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"the realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ within the photographic; the word crisis inferring both an intense difficulty and a point of departure; a need for immediate change. Defining or attempting to name this period of change is not important, what is important is what it means for photographic practice. Will we continue to be consumed by images, or is there a future beyond the cycle of referencing left by postmodernism?ÃâÃ Can we ever (re)find authenticity, originality and a true form of photography that can direct us to the real? Chapter 1: What caused people to want to return to the real? There are many factors which eventually led to people wanting to return to the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ values that were present in art and culture before postmodernism. This chapter will look at what some of these factors are and how they led to the return of the real. It will first deal with postmodernism and how the never ending referencing that was introduced during this time affected photography as an art form, and how the loss of the real that we experienced during the postmodernist era led to a wish to return to something more stable and basic. It will also look at the advances in technology and video that came about at this time, and how these advances changed photographic culture.ÃâÃ It will also explore how our experiences, events, and even our emotions, both on an individual and public scale are heavily mediated, and how as a result of this, it is claimed we have lost any relation to the real. The original shift towards the real came about due to postmodernism. This new form of art focussed on bringing together elements from existing culture, and never making anything new. This new way of working led to photography being used more and more in art. Before, photography had merely been a method of recording and was used mainly in science. Anytime it had been used in art it was considered undeserving and not a true art form.ÃâÃ However, the rise of postmodernism meant that artists were looking for more ways to express themselves. Photography began to be used more and more, and it was becoming a more widely recognised and accepted form of art. As people were using it more and more, new developments in photographic technology were emerging. These new technologies meant that photography became more widely available, and many people who were not considered artists began using it. Photography was now used extensively in art, and in the new postmodern culture. Postmodernism discarded the idea of finding something new and original and instead focussed on recombining elements from existing culture. Nothing new was being created which soon meant that art had become exhausted. The postmodern culture played Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"with signs of never ending reference, where the more you played the less anyone seemed to know what reality it was touchingÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Bate, 2004a: 31) and we had Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"lost touch with what we thought reality to beÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Bate, 2004a: 31). The constant referencing and re-referencing had led to us being absorbed in representation. We no longer knew what reality was, and what it was not. We were lost. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"The fear about postmodern culture was that there was no longer any anchor to reality at all, and that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"realityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ had disappeared into an endless chain of other representationsÃ ¢ Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Bate, 2004a: 31). This never ending reference meant that all grip on reality had disappeared. There was a wish to return to something more stable and basic. There was a need for change, for something new to emerge from the endless trail of reference. In this culture, in which reality was discarded in favour of mass intertextual referencing, there was a desire to return to reality. As David Bate says, there was a, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"wish for a grittier, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"closer to realityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ relation through realismÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Bate, 2004a: 35). Many people wanted a Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"return to the values of modernism (the straight and pure photograph) to contemporary art photography, this is a return to description, originality and actuality Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" precisely all the things that were strongly rejected by postmodernismÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Bate, 2004a: 33). There were many developments in technology that caused the downfall of postmodernism, along with the introduction of video. Photography was once the only way of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"stopping timeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢, whereas now a freeze frame can come from any number of sources. Photographs began to be made by pulling them out of existing images; they were now selected from video and film. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"What had once been the sole privilege and product of the photograph is now equally likely to be the result of a cinema or video Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"freeze-frameÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Bate, 2004b: 34). The development of video was leading to photography becoming redundant.ÃâÃ Photography and video was also now becoming more readily available. Due to new appliances such as DVD players and VCRÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s, anyone could now create a freeze frame from a video. Even Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"cinematic blockbusters can be stilled on domestic appliance devices like DVD and video machine sÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Bate, 2004b: 34). Victor Burgin discussed the advances in film and video in his essay Possessive, Pensive and Possessed. The introduction of VCRs, DVD players, and eventually video editing software on personal computers, meant that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"the order of narrative could now be routinely countermandedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Burgin, 2007: 198) by the audience whenever they wished. This changed photography, as instead of photographs being of an actual event, they were now selections from the way the event had already been interpreted. Newspapers and news channels were no longer using photographers to capture the perfect picture; they were using video and selecting the image from the video. This enabled the news channels to pick the exact expression or look they required to give a biased representation of the person or thing. They could now create a completely false demonstration and force a public collective opinion. David Bate talks about these freeze-frame imag es in his article After Thought, Part II. He says, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"The possibility of choosing the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"right momentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ in such instances is still dependent uponÃâÃ a person knowing when to push the button, but this is now in the hands of someone selecting a still from an already produced moving image. The selected Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"decisiveÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ moment is chosen from a film or video stream rather than Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"realityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ itself. Whereas a photograph was supposed to be a Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"rectangle ripped out of timeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ as John Berger had once dramatically put it, today it is more often via the computer that a print is pulled out of some existing image bankÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. (Bate, 2004a: 34) Images used to be representations of actual lived events Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" now these images we see in news and the media are much more likely to be representations from the way the event has already been represented. Video had stolen what makes photography special Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" the decisive moment. Therefore the specificity and specialness of photography had to find itself in some other attribute of photography. New developments in digital imagery mean that we can now see results instantly; there is no waiting in a lab or until the end of your holiday to see your photographs. Advances in technology, such as mobile phones, email, etc. now allow us to see and share images in a fraction of a second. The person sending these images and the person receiving them can now send and expect results instantly. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"Yet despite the idea that these mobile technologies bring us all closer to each other, we are caught up in a contradiction, since they increasingly mediatise our relationships to one anotherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Bate, 2004b: 35).ÃâÃ We no longer talk to each other and see each other face to face; we instead communicate through email, mobile text messaging and social networking sites, where we never actually see the other person we are communicating with. This has lead to a loss of the real. As David Bate said, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"To look at something it has to be kept at a distanceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Bate, 2004b: 35). Because of the loss of the real that we experienced during the postmodernist era there is a wish to return to something more stable and basic. New art is now made up of redundant processes that are often older and slower, which makes this new art form different from the images we see in everyday media culture. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"If analogue photography is becoming technologically redundant or residual to news and advertising industries, the consequences for art are different. New art is often borne of redundant industrial processes, usually older and slower, by finding a new use and aesthetic within the arts and which comes out of its marking a difference from image uses in everyday media cultureÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. (Bate, 2004b: 40) Artists were leaving these new fast technologies that were used in the media in favour of older slower ones. These old, redundant methods were considered more real. The traditional, slower, apparently simpler methods seemed to be more linked to the real as they are different from the images in the media. Some people have called this change and shift in the way that photographs are being constructed a shift towards Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"the realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ values that were present in modernism, before the rise of postmodernism. As Susan Sontag says, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"The cult of the future (of faster and faster seeing) alternates with the wish to return to a more artisanal, purer past Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" when images still had a handmade quality, an auraÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Sontag, 1977: 221). But, Hal Foster feels that we have not left postmodernism completely, it has just become normalised. The consequence of this is that we change the way we want reality to be constructed. Hal Foster feels that simply, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"postmodernism became dÃÆ'Ã ©modÃÆ'Ã ¨Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Foster, 1996: 206). Due to the media, we have become inundated with images and photographs in our everyday life, to the extent that images have become our reality. We no longer separate images from real life, and the two have become blurred. In his book, Comments on the Society of the Spectacle, Guy Debord talks about how developments in photography and the proliferation of mass media images have contributed to what Debord called the society of the spectacle. In the spectacular world, images and representations become our reality Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" everything exists as and for images. Where images refer to one another endlessly, originality and authenticity are abolished. We become consumed by images and messages. Experience, events, and even our emotions, both on an individual and public scale are heavily mediated. As a result of this, it is claimed we have lost any relation to the real; The spectacle has now spread itself to the point where it now permeates all reality. (Debord, 1990: 9) Our real-life experiences become repressed and events take place in a mediated, pseudo-reality. We can no longer distinguish between real memories, and mediated memories. Victor Burgin explores this in his essay Possessive, Pensive and Possessed. He describes a study done in 1977 where people were interviewed about their past experiences. There were a few people in the study who believed that media events or films were in fact their own memories. People became confused and mixed personal history with scenes from films or media productions. As Burgin says, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬?I saw at the cinemaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? would simply become Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âI sawÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Burgin, 2007: 200). Burgin explains how these people were remembering scenes from a film instead of real life, and called these memories Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"screen memories;ÃâÃ Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"A Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âscreen memoryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? is one which comes to mind in the place of, and in order to conceal , an associated but repressed memoryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Burgin, 2007: 201). People were remembering images and scenes from films and the media that were similar to their real memories, but were less painful as there were not actual lived recollections. People were using these to cover up and replace genuine, traumatic memories. In the past, events happened but people just didnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t know about them as there was no media. It rarely went beyond those involved. Now because of media we all know about every event, and add these events to our memories, even though we have not actually physically experienced them. We forget our real experiences and replace them with things from the media. Thomas De Zengotita, in his book, Mediated; How the media shape the world around us, describes how our reaction to big events such as the 9/11 disaster is to experience and re-live them through images. He calls this bubble of mediated representations Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"the blobÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. In the world of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"the blobÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢, momentous catastrophes such as the 9/11 terrorist attacks are almost poignant enough to burst the bubble, something like that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" will feel as if it might be sharp enough, as if it might pierce the membrane and slice the pulp (De Zengotita, 2007: 27). Howe ver, not surprisingly, our reaction to such events is to experience and re-live it through images, adding it to our bank of mediated events.ÃâÃ In other words, they become part of the spectacle. Chapter 2: Realism in Landscape Photography This chapter is going to explore how photographers attempt to represent the real, and if you can create a purely descriptive photograph. It will discuss photographers that try to represent the real, and also photographers that play around with the representation of the real, to create something completely different. I will specifically be looking at landscape photography, as this is the area of photography were photographers have really attempted to create authentic representations of the real, to show the landscape. It is also the area of photography that I am particularly interested in. To attempt to show the real in landscape photography, you need to show the scenery at its most natural and realistic, with no visual manipulation or artifice. There is also the argument that no message, meaning or reference may be conveyed at all. Considering it is the view of some people that photographs are analysed and given meaning as soon as they are viewed, is this possible? In this chapter, select works of four photographers will be looked at. It will consider how each photographer has attempted to show the real, either as an exact representation, or by manipulating the representation to give it a different meaning, and will discuss whether they have managed this. The photographers that are going to be observed are Ansel Adams, Andreas Gursky, Doug Aitken and Justin Partyka. Ansel Adams is an environmentalist and photographer who makes landscape photographs to essentially document and record the beauty of nature. AdamÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s love of nature began when he was a child, after having problems fitting in at school and eventually being home taught. He would go for hikes through nature, and this is where his fascination with nature was set in motion. Adams began his photographic career by using the Kodak No. 1 Box Brownie his parents had given him to record his travels through the Yosemite Valley. He soon joined the Sierra club, and held his first solo exhibition at the clubÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s headquarters in 1928. The work created by Adams is done using a large format camera, so as to capture as much detail as possible. The image I will be looking at is called Mt. Clarence King, Pool, Kings Canyon National Park, California (1925). It is a landscape image taken in Kings Canyon National Park in 1925. The image is a black and white image, of a scene, with large mountains in the background and a pool in the foreground. There is a lot of gravelly earth around the pool and some trees and bushes between the mountains and pool. This image is an authentic representation of the landscape, and is not trying to be anything else. Adams wanted to purely represent the landscape, and this is what he has done. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"Adams began to pursue straight photography, in which the clarity of the lens was emphasized, and the final print gave no appearance of being manipulated in the camera or the darkroomÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (www.anseladams.com, 2009). Adams only ever tried to create accurate representations of the landscape.ÃâÃ However, you could argue that the fact that he works in black and white indicates that this image is not a true representation, as the world is not in black and white. This non use of colour is ther efore a message, rendering the images more than pure description. Andreas Gursky is one of the rare photographers who began attempting to create vast, clear representations of the real, but then moved on to openly digitally manipulating his images. I will be looking at some of his work pre 1990Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s, as this is before he started to digitally manipulate his images. Gursky was trained and influenced by Hilla and Bernd Becher, who are known for their straight, scientific style of systematically cataloguing industrial machinery and architecture. This may be compared to the similar methodical approach that Gursky has to his own work. Gursky generally photographs landscape in large colour format (although a lot of his work is urban landscape, both interior and exterior). The image I will be examining is Fishermen, MÃÆ'Ã ¼lheim a.d. Ruhr, taken in 1989. This is a landscape image of GurskyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s taken in 1989. It is of a river running through the city of MÃÆ'Ã ¼lheim. The river is wide and flat, with trees covering both banks. You can just make out a few small groups of fishermen on the banks of the river, and a bridge in the distance. This is before he used any digital manipulation, and was purely trying to represent the real. Gursky has not attempted to conceal or change anything in this image to give it a meaning or a reference. He has named the image what it is, Fishermen, MÃÆ'Ã ¼lheim a.d. Ruhr, which is simply what is it, fishermen on a river in MÃÆ'Ã ¼lheim, so has not tried to imply meaning through the name of the image. This image is meant to be purely descriptive, and a genuine representation of the real. Other photographers and writers have agreed with this, for example David Bate says Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"What Gursky and Evans both share (with different techniques of course) is an Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"awesomeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ description. The effects of these anecdotal descriptions is primarily to evince reality through the photographic instant of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"here it isÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ and Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"this is how it isÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. The picture throws at the audience a defiant description where the accumulation of anecdotal detail actually inhibits the communication of a specific messageÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. (Bate, 2004a; pg 33) BateÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s view is that the vast amount of detail in the image actually inhibits a message being conveyed by the image. He feels GurskyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s plan is to be as authentically descriptive as possible Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"this is how it isÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" and not to hide or imply any other meaning or reference. This may have been GurskyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s plan, to attempt to create a pure representation of the real, but this does not change how we view images. We still attempt to create a meaning for ourselves, as we no longer feel that sheer description is enough. There must be a referent, a meaning behind the image, and we are constantly looking for it. Gursky was attempting to create a purely descriptive photograph, but we do not see it like that because of the way we now look at and interpret images. Doug Aitken works with a range of material, including photography, sculpture, films, sound, single and multichannel video works and instillations. This essay, however, will just be looking at his photography. Rather than purely representing the real in his images, Aitken plays around with the representation of the image so they are descriptive photographs, but the way they are put together adds a message and reference. Aitken lives and works in Los Angeles, and is one of many new artists to work with the medium of film. Film is AitkenÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s main medium for his art work although he does work with still images from time to time. The image I am going to be looking at is called New Opposition III. This is an image made up of four different images. Separately, the images could be considered as descriptive attempts at representing the real. However, the way that Aitken puts them together changes this. If viewed on their own, they would be seen as purely descriptive, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ images of landscape. But the way they have been put together suggests something else. They become more like a narrative, showing different places at different times, together; Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"I wanted to find a way to blend together different moments in time, different spaces and different locationsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Aitken, : 62). Aitken feels that the images would not work on their own and rely on each other to create their meaning. On their own, they would be nothing. He says Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"The photographs do not work as self-sufficient one-off frames but rely on each other for meaning. The optical tricks that the landscape form when placed together give the impression to the viewer that they are either falling into the centre of the earth or are on top of it looking down as if from the apex of a pyramidÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Aitken, :62). The way the images are placed together is obviously very important to the meaning that Aitken is trying to provide. Aitken is using Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ images in his work, but playing around with the representation so that they are no longer considered real. He purposefully adds a meaning and a message to his images, rather than leaving it to the viewersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ imagination. This is different from somebody like Gursky, who does not give a message, as the image is just supposed to be an authentic representation. Any meaning given to GurskyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s images is given by the viewer, in contrast to AitkenÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s images where the meaning is given for you. Viewers are now so used to images having a meaning, and that meaning being told to them, that they now look for a meaning in everything. Justin Partyka is a photographer whose work explores the importance of place, culture and identity, and the roles that tradition and landscape play in these themes. He is currently working on three long term projects; The East Anglians, The Carnivalesque of CÃÆ'Ã ¡diz, and Saskatchewan. The project I will be concentrating on is The East Anglians. The work, The East Anglians, is a collection of documentary photographs of rural life in East Anglia. Partyka attempts to create Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ images, in a documentary style. His photographs are often very Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"straightÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ with no messages or signs. The image I am looking at is one from the East Anglians series, but the title is unknown. This image is of an old barn in East Anglia. As the image is untitled, it suggests that Partyka did not want to imply any meaning at all, not even naming the place or image. The barn is quite old and rusty, and appears to be in a state of disrepair. There is a lot of grass in the foreground in front of the barn, and fields behind it. The photograph is an attempt at a Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ representation of the scene. However, Partyka has called this series of photographs, The East Anglians. This is a quite obvious reference to Robert FrankÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s, The Americans. Although Partyka has created purely descriptive images, he has referenced other work in his title. PartykaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work, although essentially descriptive, cannot deny the presence of such referencing. What we have here is an image that is subjective in narrative, with referencing to earlier photography, and yet undoubtedly descriptive. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"I see photography as very much a desc riptive mediumÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ but obviously this description is an edited one based on the choices made by the photographer in where they point the camera and when they press the shutterÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Partyka, 2009). Partyka has acknowledged that his photographs are descriptive, and that photography is a descriptive medium, but can a photograph ever be a pure representation of the real? As Partyka says, the description of an image is based on the photographerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s choice of where to point the camera and when to press the shutter, which immediately adds reference to the image. We canÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t help but look at what a photograph means. Photographs are placed in a context of viewing, and are subjected to analysis and interpretation at the very instance of looking. So, although Partyka has undoubtedly created very descriptive images, the referencing in his title, and the fact that images are analysed as soon as they are placed in a context of viewing, means h is photographs are no longer purely descriptive. Can we ever have an account without analysis? It seems that we cannot. Even photographs that are meant to be purely descriptive are analysed and given meaning and reference as soon as they are placed within a context of viewing. This is similar to the Observer Effect popular in current interpretations of Quantum Mechanics.ÃâÃ This theory puts forward the postulate that by merely observing an object, the very nature of the object itself is changed: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"One of the most bizarre premises of quantum theory, which has long fascinated philosophers and physicists alike, states that by the very act of watching, the observer affects the observed realityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (www.sciencedaily.com, 1998). Could it therefore be said that an image may remain purely descriptive as long as it is never viewed, and therefore never interpreted and given meaning? Possibly, but then we also have to discuss whether a photograph is made more than a pure representation when it is taken. When a photographer decides where to point their camera, when to press the shutter, what to cut out of the image and what to include, it could be said that in that instant the photographer is not making an exact representation of reality, but an edited one. Therefore, it could also be said that we can never provide a purely descriptive representation of the real through photography. Chapter 3: Can we ever get back to the real? This brings us to the question; can we ever get back to the real? Were we even there in the first place?ÃâÃ Does descriptive realism actually exist in photography? This chapter will look at the theories and ideas of many photography theorists, as well as my own, and will attempt to answer these questions, and others. It will use work from various photographers, as well as several essays and books to endeavour to explore the notions of the real in relation to photography and contemporary culture, and to investigate if we can find, or re-find the real. Does descriptive realism exist? We canÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t help but look at what the photograph signifies and means. Even photographs that appear to be descriptive cannot escape being subjected to analysis and placed within a context of viewing. Everything in an image is symbolic once we begin to interpret it, and this begins at the very instance of looking. This is, as Roland Barthes says, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"great scorn for the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ârealistsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? who do not see that the photograph is always codedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Barthes, 2000: 88). Photographs can never be void of theoretical underpinnings, and any photographs that do appear to be purely Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"realisticÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ only do so in accord to what we expect a descriptive or realistic image to be like. Debord explains this perfectly in his discussion of theory; what is so droll, however, is that all the books which do analyse this phenomenon, usually to deplore it, cannot but join the spectacle if theyre to get attention (Debord, 1990: 5). Evidently we continue to encounter an endless cycle of referencing, which cannot be traced simply to the accepted beginnings of postmodernism. Photographs are analysed as soon as they are viewed. Perhaps they never were, and never will be void of reference and construction? Maybe they can never provide the clear, stable version of reality that we want from them? Conceptual photography attempts to show the truth by highlighting this dilemma. It attempts to parody the common notions of indexicality and truth in photographic representations, and in doing so, reveals this as the real. In their essay From Presence to Performative: Re-thinking Photographic Indexicality, David Green and Joanna Lowry look at notions of indexicality and truth in photographic representations. They discuss how photographs are indexical not just because light is recorded in an instant on a piece of photosensitive film, but also, because they were taken: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"the very act of photography, as a kind of performative gesture which points to an event in the world, as a form of designation that draws reality into the image field, is thus itself a form of indexicalityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. (Green and Lowry, 2003: 48). They discuss how conceptual photography attempts to parody the common notions of indexicality and truth in photographic representations, and in doing so, r eveal this as the real: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"[conceptual photographs] point to the real while reminding us that photography can never represent itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Green and Lowry, 2003: 60). They claim that it is photographyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s problematic indexical status that has led to the attempt to recuperate that particular engagement with reality that photography seems to offer (Green and Lowry, 2003: 47). Pointing us towards the truth by demonstrating what is not offered up in the photograph is key to other photographers such as Joan Fontcuberta, who stated in his lecture Datascapes that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"only through trickery can we achieve the visual truthÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Fontcuberta 2009). This is one of his images, taken in 1984, from his Herbarium series. At first we assume this to be an innocent, objective record, but what Fontcuberta reveals to us through the collection and his texts, is that this is a purely fictional specimen created from found objects and litter. His aim through this series is to examine the truthfulness of photography, and his images are a parody of the truth that photography is assumed to provide. Fontcuberta pushes the extent to which we can believe in the fictional image. In the book Joan Fontcuberta, Fontcuberta is quoted as saying, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"look out- itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s photography so itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s probably falseÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Caujolle, 2001: 3). His work is an experimentation of the commonly believed notion that photography is truth, and is Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. Through his work, specifically the series Herbarium, Fontcuberta is trying to direct us towards the reading that fiction is the only route to revealing reality. His work reveals that the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"realÃ ¢ Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ itself is a construct. Photographys role then may be to demonstrate this, but it is hard to imagine that in doing so will not evade the trap of referencing and messaging that we are intent on discarding. David Green and Joanna Lowry describe the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"tenuous hold that the photograph has over the real and the instability inscribed in the very notion of the photograph as an objective recordÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Green and Lowry, 2003: 49). They discuss a series of photographs made by Robert Barry in 1969, entitled Inert Gas Series, and how BarryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s images succeed in showing us that photography cannot record the truth. Here is one of his images, Helium. Sometime during the morning of March 5, 1969, 2 cubic feet of Helium will be released into the atmosphere. BarryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s images consist of a number of photographs along with text which describes his actions when releasing various invisible gasses in specific locations in Los Angeles. Of course, nothing can be seen in these images apart from the location at which he has chosen to release the gas. So although the photograph claims to show these events, nothing can be seen to validate the claims made by the accompanying text. BarryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s images are carefully made to show the limits of documentary photography. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"While providing us with the indexical trace of the moment of the gasÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s release they also gesture towards the impossibility of recording it, and our attention shifts instead towards the act of photography itself as the moment of authenticationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Green and Lowry, date Pg 50). BarryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s aim is not therefore to show us the gas being released, but to point out that photography cannot represent it. As Andy Grundberg states in Crisis of the Real, what postmodernism art finally tells us is that things have been used up, that we are at the end of the line, that we are all prisoners of what we see (Grundberg, 1999: 17).ÃâÃ We are now consumed by images and messages, to the point where the notion of the real is unreachable. It seems there is no exit point from postmodernism, as there is no way to look back on it and critically assess. Descriptive realism, along with conceptual photography, cannot be distanced from the principles of a postmodern culture.ÃâÃ If the case then is that we cannot escape, can we continue to churn out images, to make new meanings from within our bubble of mediated society? What role does photography have as a documenter of reality? Published in 2007, Thomas De Zengotitas Mediated deals with the postmodern condition and as he describes it; virtualizations edgeless quality and ability to engulf our culture within a bubble of mediated representations (De Zengotita, 2007: 17). The term he uses for this is the blob. De Zengotita, similarly to Grundberg, maintains that there is no escape from perpetual reflexivity, stating, There is no going back to reality just as there is no going back to virginity. (De Zengotita, 2007: 11) He claims, representation and reality fuse into a field of options and it is due to this infinite availability of options that we lose our grasp of the real. In essence, De Zengotita suggests we can choose anything to believe in, any method with which to re-present ourselves and act out our emotions. There is an excess of choice. Taken further, this could mean we can choose what to believe as our reality, anything could be real, or more, anything could be a representation (to any degree) of the real. This idea that reality is what we choose it to be is also discussed by Susan Sontag, in her essay Photography in Search of Itself. The suggestion that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"photographic realism can be Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" is more and more- defined not as what is Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âreallyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? there, but is what I Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âreallyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? perceiveÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Sontag, 2007: 217) is one that is particularly interesting when trying to decide if we can ever get back to the real, or if indeed it was even there in the first place? Maybe photographs have always been Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ in accordance to how we personally decide how reality is composed? In the world of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"the blobÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢, as described by De Zengotita, momentous catastrophes such as the 9/11 terrorist attacks are almost poignant enough to burst the bubble, something like that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" will feel as if it might be sharp enough, as if it might pierce the membrane and slice the pulp (De Zengotita, 2007: 27). However, our reaction to momentous catastrophes, such as 9/11 terrorist attack, is to experience and re-live it through images. This adds to our bank or mediated events, and dilutes it. Maybe the only way to make events retain a status of significance is to make sure they are un-photographed, un-videoed and un-discussed Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" left only to the individualsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ memory as opposed to a collective global memory (De Zengotita). Everything exists in an image reality and in order to become events, everything including terrorist attacks, need to be played out under our terms of visibility. The 9/11 terrorist attacks w ere constantly shown in news and media, and added to this effect. These events could have retained a status of significance and could have at least interrupt[ed] the Blobs progress through the universeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (De Zengotita, 2007: 27) if they had not been turned into image spectacles. Maybe objects, images and even events need to remain outside the visible realm to retain any originality and significance. It is the presentation and analysis of images that places and fixes them within our visual spectrum, therefore we would assume that our trust and interest in the photograph would be truly exhausted, signalling the death of photographic practice. In his essay Safety in Numbness: Some Remarks on Problems of Late Photography, David Campany discusses the work of Joel Meyerowitz. He looks at the images of Ground Zero, taken by Meyerowitz with a large format camera over a month after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. This contemplative, post-event photography seems to be re-instating photographys status as authoritative documenter of history. This is one of his images, The North Wall, October 26th 2003. This is a seductive image, and, as Campany says, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"[Meyerowitz] knows what makes a good photo and canÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t avoid the beautifulÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Campany, 2002: 131). The atmospheric light and colour work towards creating a melancholic and enigmatic image. The photograph cannot, however, detach the subject from its context, particularly one so poignant and political, nor the reading of the image from its photographic context. This is problematic, as rendering the subject sublime and detaching it from the event is Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"no guarantee of an enlightened position or critical stanceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Campany, 2003: 132). This photography leads us to experience the event in a detached and Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"aestheticizedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ way, however, this does not mean it brings us any closer to the truth. Photography had lost its status as the official and truthful recorder of events, due to the increased use of video and film in the media. This led to the older, traditional methods of photography becoming used more, and this has reinstated photographyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s status as an illustrator of truthfulness and legitimacy. Photography seems to have regained status according to the very terms by which it was overshadowed by video journalism in the first place. David Green and Joanna Lowry comment on the death of photography in their essay From Presence to Performative: Re-thinking Photographic Indexicality. Their view is that the rise of the digital image and image manipulation meant the death of photography, as it showed it to be false. Conversely, this led to people, especially from younger generations, wanting to re-find photography as an arbiter of truth. They began to go back to the older, slower methods of photography, and were creating images with these qualities that were lost with the digital age. There was an Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"attempt to recuperate that particular engagement with reality that photography seems to offerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ (Green and Lowry, 2003: 47) Photography, in the traditional sense, has not become extinct, but, its role has changed according to the development of other mediums. In his essay, Safety in Numbness: Some Remarks on Problems of Late PhotographyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢, Campany discusses the photographs of Ground Zero by Joel Meyerowitz (see fig 7). This work is exemplary of a type of slow, contemplative, post-event photography that is emerging. Considering in previous decades that it was speed and instantaneity that were considered to be most truthful, it is ironic that this Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"late photographyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ appears to be re-instating photographyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s status as an authoritative documenter of history; there was a suggestion that photography rather than television might be the better medium for official history (Campany, 2003; 123). Campany also discussed the theory of collective memory. The mediated events that we see in the news are added to our collective memory, even if we personally have not experienced or lived them. We therefore all have the same memories, but due to the way these memories have been made from video, they are very hard to recall. It was thought that a single image can bring back the processes of our memory that have been complicated by other technologies. Campany stated that photography can rescue the processes of our memory that have been made so complicated by the sheer amount of information we assimilate from [a] diverse [range] of technologies. (Campany, 2003; 126) Rather than photography becoming extinct and only aiding the progress of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"the blobÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢, there is an idea that its muteness and slowness means it can save us, providing a fixed Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"stillÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ point at which to locate our sense of the real. There are a number of strands of photography that are concerned with the notion of re-finding the real. What do these methods of photographing have in common? Do any of these strands achieve the stable and basic feeling of certainty that the real exists? All have a tendency to reveal, intentionally or not, the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ through the fact that they cannot capture it. The act of re-presenting, only fixes their existence in our postmodern melting pot, helping to confuse and complicate our relationship to, and our understanding of, what is real. Instead of pre-senting the world to man from the real, images now re-present it from an existing bank of images. Writing in 1984 Vil ÃÆ'Ã ©m Flusser sums up this whole debate perfectly; Images are meant to render the world accessible and imaginable to man. But, even as they do so, they interpose themselves between man and the world. They are meant to be maps, and they become screens. Instead of pre-senting the world to man, they re-present it, put themselves in place of the world, to the extent that man lives as a function of the images he has produced.The world becomes image-like, a context of scenes and situations. This reversal of the function of images may be Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âidolatryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Man forgets that he produces images in order to find his way in the world; he now tries to find his way in images. He no longer deciphers his own images, but lives in their function. Imagination has become hallucination. ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ (Flusser, 1984:7) What Flusser is saying, is that people are now consumed by images to the extent that we now use these images to show us the real, without looking at the real itself. The Images have become more real to us, than the thing they are representing. Conclusion As discussed in chapter 1, there are many factors that eventually led to people wanting to return to the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ values that were present in art and culture before postmodernism. The loss of the real that was experienced during postmodernism led to a wish to return to something more stable and basic, such as the values of modernism. There was a wish to return to description, uniqueness and authenticity, which were precisely all the things that were strongly rejected by postmodernism. There was also a change in how people started creating art images. There was a desire to create images that were different to the images that we see every day in the media, so photographers were returning to the older slower methods of photography that were used before the significant rise of media imagery. The sheer amount of images in the media also caused people to want to return to more Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ values. This was because people were now re-liv ing events- even ones that they have not personally experienced- through images instead of memories. This essay has also discovered that it seems we cannot create an image without analysis, through discussing attempts at descriptive photographs by different photographers. This is due to the fact that images are analysed as soon as they are placed within a context of viewing. As said in the Observer Effect, by merely observing an object, the very nature of the object itself is changed. Therefore, just by viewing an image, the nature of it changes. But, it goes even further than this. Even if a photograph is never viewed, it can still never be purely descriptive. This is because when a photograph is taken, choices are made by the photographer so that in that instant they are not making an exact representation of reality, but an edited one based on these choices that are made (where to point the camera, when to press the shutter, what to include and what not to include in the image). Therefore, based on this information, it could be said that we can never provide a purely descriptive r epresentation of the real through photography. Is this the case though? Is it just the fact that we are so consumed with images, and so lost in representations of the real that we are making excuses to explain that the images are not representations of the real, to distance ourselves from them. For example, if looking at an image changes the nature of it, surely looking at reality also changes the nature of reality? What is to say that the thing that is changed is not the same in both the real and the representation of the real (the image), therefore making the image an exact representation of the real? We are so consumed by images that the notion of the real is now unreachable. There appears to be no exit point from postmodernism, as there is not a way to look back and critically assess. Descriptive realism cannot be distanced from the principles of postmodern culture, so we cannot escape. The reason why we feel that there are no Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"realÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ images is because we are now conditioned to look for the message, as we cannot escape from postmodernism which initially instilled these values in us. If this is the case, can we continue to churn out images and make new meanings from within our bubble of mediated society? Will photography ever have a role as documenter of reality? Currently, photography cannot have a role as a documenter of reality as we are stuck in the referencing from postmodernism. However, if we manage to find a way to escape from the postmodern melting pot, photography may be able to reinstate its status as a documenter of reality. So presently, the popular opinion is that the real is not possible. But maybe the real is infinitely possible? It seems that the notion of the real is as unstable, adaptable and malleable as the photograph itself.